Diets 12 June 2016

Special Diets for Pregnancy and Lactation

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Tomorrow will make children today, and the vitality and health of the future community will be realized in the light of the health of children. Embryo development is of particular importance, so that the effect of malnutrition on physical and mental development can not be compensated after this period. Given the crucial role of nutrition in providing health, the necessity of achieving the best and most appropriate The best way of nourishment is well understood in the most sensitive period of a person's life, that is, fetal age and breastfeeding.

Dietary regimens regulated and designed by the staff of the Institute of Food Safety, while considering the problem of controlling the weight and balance of fetal growth, prevention of maternal nutritional deficiencies and complications such as viremia, nausea and vomiting, hypertension, diabetes mellitus Pregnancy, and so on.

During pregnancy, a healthy diet will keep your baby healthy and healthy. In the old days, it was believed that the feeding of a pregnant woman should be twice as much as a woman's normal diet; it is true that the pregnant woman needs more food, but her daily intake should not exceed a certain amount, since excess food intake is not only not beneficial but harmful. Is .

Undoubtedly, one of the greatest wishes of all people is having a healthy and healthy baby. In this regard, the general practitioners try to examine the factors affecting the improvement of the pregnancy process and its outcome, and avoid as much as possible harmful factors. Many changes Due to the pregnancy in the mother's body, many factors contribute to determining the correct course of pregnancy and the outcome of pregnancy. One of the most important points is feeding a pregnant mother.

Because full fetal development is closely related to the mother's nutrition, her nutritional requirements are matched to her mother, and is the only way to meet her energy and structural needs through couples. In addition, the physiological changes of this age should also be considered. Because the metabolism of food and even the need for them changes during this period. The importance and importance of food depends on its type, not on its amount. The amount of daily intake varies and is partly related to woman's height, weight, and appetite. Some pregnant women are afraid that they will try to reduce their normal daily intake if they eat large foods and, on the contrary, Moms do not eat too much to keep their baby low. In the first months of pregnancy, appetite usually decreases, but the desire to eating some foods increases due to vein, resulting in an imbalance in the type and amount of food Consumption occurs, and if the proper diet is not selected for a pregnant woman, the nutritional situation is mixed and various complications occur. Each gets. With the advancement of food for pregnancy, the woman's appetite for a large amount of food, and sometimes even to such an extent that she should be forced to reduce the normal amount of food. The food that the pregnant woman eats after digestion is absorbed and enters the bloodstream and Then it is used by the body and the embryo. In the daily diet, in addition to sugar, fat, and starch that generates heat and energy, there are other ingredients, such as vitamins and minerals, that are very useful for the functioning of the body's cells and cause their lack of body anxiety. Calcium is one It is one of the most important minerals that is very important for protein synthesis for the formation of bone marrow. Minerals and vitamins are abundant in a variety of vegetables and fruits, but since these do not provide women with the needs of pregnancy, pregnant mothers should use the ingredients in addition to what they need for their own body. The needs of the fetus are overcome.

The daily intake of pregnant women in terms of importance and nutritional value is divided into seven groups:

Group 1: Includes milk and milk compound. Milk is considered as the most complete and healthy natural food for the following reasons

  1. A large amount of different minerals, such as calcium and phosphorus, is needed to form bones and teeth of the baby.
  2. An excellent source of protein that is easily digested and absorbed and used to make body tissues.
  3. It has a large amount of different vitamins, such as vitamin A, which is essential for the development of the fetus, as well as vitamin B.

Daily milk intake is one liter or two units per day, which can be either plain, cold or hot or mixed with cocoa. Milk pasteurized milk is much better.

A group of pregnant women is reluctant to eat fat because of fear of being overweight. Certainly, the amount of fat in the milk is not high, especially if the milk alone wants to take the usual food, calories are needed for body fat, and the woman is lean. In fact, the woman's obesity is related to other starchy and sugar that comes with milk Are consumed.

The best substitutes are milk, cheese and yogurt. All cheese has a high concentration of milk, with the exception of sugar content, and therefore it is advisable to consume it with sugar. Yogurt, especially in summer, is very pleasant and has a lot of food like milk.

Group 2: Includes green and yellow vegetables such as spinach, lettuce, beans, lentils, peas, green and red peppers, cabbage, horseradish, carrots, pumpkin and potatoes.

Among these vegetables, cabbage and spinach are superior to other types due to their high levels of iron and vitamin. All these vegetables, which are rich in vitamins A and minerals, are raw, salad or cooked, but care should be taken to heat them for a short time and in low water, so that they are not cooked too much and the existing vitamins They do not get lost in heat. The water that comes from cooking vegetables because it contains a lot of vitamins and minerals should not be discarded and it is better to eat with soup.

Third group: includes vegetables such as raw cabbage, tomatoes and fresh and citrus fruits.

These substances that contain vitamin C should be taken twice or more daily. This vitamin is found in abundance in oranges, lemons and vegetables, and in tomatoes and finally in raw cabbage. During pregnancy, the body's need for vitamin D is doubled, so pregnant women should consume more fruits and vegetables.

Some aesthetics believe that the delicacy of the skin, the smooth appearance and the beautiful face is associated with food, which is more than fresh and fresh fruits and vegetables.

Group 4: Includes meat, chicken, fish and eggs.

These protein substances should be consumed during pregnancy in order to grow the fetus, the placenta, the uterus, and the increase in the blood volume of the mother.

One or two eggs are good food for pregnant women every morning, because egg yolks contain large amounts of iron, vitamins and body tissue. Iron is one of the elements necessary for the formation of hemoglobin, or the main substance of the red blood cell, and in fact, it is a substance that causes redness of the blood, and those who have low iron levels are less likely to become bleeding due to hemoglobin deficiency and appear pale. . In the last months of pregnancy, mothers transport large quantities of iron that they absorb through food into their abdomen, resulting in a relatively large proportion of them suffering from anemia due to lack of iron absorption. The fetus, on the other hand, stores a large amount of iron in its liver, so it can use the iron storage for a few months after it's only fed with milk to help its body recover.

In the past, eating meat was considered harmful to pregnant women, which is why anemia and other diseases were found to be abundant in the body due to protein deficiency.

Today, most doctors believe that the balanced amount of meat in daily food is not only not detrimental but also useful. Beef, calf and sheep can be used as barbecue or cooked food according to personal taste and taste. Salmon is also a nutritious and nutritious food, provided it is not salty. Liver in the form of barbecue or half-baked

It is useful once a week in your diet because in addition to nutritional value, due to the presence of minerals and elements such as iron and copper that are used in the formation of blood, there is a significant amount of different vitamins, which for the whole to prevent and treat Anemia is beneficial.

Group 5: includes bread, wheat germ and legumes.

Bread of wheat flour and its skin is brownish-yellow and has a high nutritional value and high vitamin content, but it is less nutritious than white flour because the amount of iron and vitamins in wheat Different types of group B and E are found.

A little vitamin B in the human body causes nausea and vomiting, low appetite, and nausea and digestive disturbances. During pregnancy, the body needs more vitamin.

According to many physicians, vitamin B and E deficiency in the first half of pregnancy causes abortion and in the second half of pregnancy, the baby is well-being. Therefore, it is necessary to use breads such as barley, black bread or whole grated biscuits in addition to white bread.

Rolls grown today with machine mills do not have enough vitamins and so their nutritional value is less, but the flour that was produced in the old days by Sigio mills, because it included the outer and outer parts of wheat, had a higher vitamin content and therefore was more intense .

Group 6: Includes potatoes and varieties of vegetable such as lettuce, cauliflower, corn, cucumber, mushrooms, onions, horseradish, squash, eggplant, rhubarb, squash, and finally all kinds of fruits.

This category of vegetables is due to the high nutritional value of sugars and, in addition, a large amount of different vitamins.

Seventh Group: Includes oily materials, varieties of vegetable butter and animal butter.

Butter is consumed with high levels of fat and flavor, especially if it comes with bread, because it produces high levels of energy, and on the other hand, it also contains a lot of vitamins.

When your body's weight exceeds the normal level during pregnancy, you should avoid eating too much fat, because in addition to digestion and absorption of excess fat, the body also stores an excess amount of fat. And this causes excessive obesity. So taking fats during pregnancy should be done with caution.

Pregnant women's daily diet

  1. Milk half a day to 1 liter
  2. About 200 grams of cheese
  3. Common meat, chicken, fish, eggs and black liver a week (one serving or more)
  4. Green leafy vegetables or yellow veggies (one serving or more)
  5. Potatoes, varieties of vegetables, citrus fruits and seasonal fruits, tomatoes, raw cabbage (two servings or more)
  6. Some butter per meal
  7. Rice and all kinds of legumes at moderate levels in a meal
  8. Chopped whole grains a slice at each meal
  9. Fresh juices like oranges, apples, pomegranates and grapes
  10. Ferrous sulfate
  11. Mineral water two cups a day, white tea three times a day

Vitamin (d):

One of the most important vitamins needed during pregnancy is because of the ability of the human body to remove calcium and phosphorus from the outside and turn it into bone. The bone and tooth structure in the uterus requires calcium and therefore, this vitamin is needed to absorb calcium.

Vitamin D is found to be high in fish oil, and in addition, sunlight is a natural and very good source of vitamin D in the body because if you get exposed to sunlight for a long time, some of the fats under the skin become vitamin. And so when the sun is low in the winter and in some countries that do not have high sunlight, it is necessary to prescribe fish oil or vitamin D for pregnant women in the second half of pregnancy.

Food Avoidance During Pregnancy:

As long as you have enough appetite for food and during pregnancy without discomfort, you usually do not need to avoid it and you can eat whatever food you like, but you should always keep two points in mind.

  1. Stop eating too much fatty and heavy digestion foods such as fried foods, fresh and creamy sweets, smoked fish and many other vegetables. Because the stomach and other parts of the digestive tract are due to pressure on your uterus, which should and maybe digested and Do not absorb foods and may get dysentery.
  2. Avoid eating salty food because the salt is excreted through the kidneys after it enters the bloodstream, and since it is not easy to remove salt during pregnancy, a large amount of it will accumulate in various tissues of the body and bring water to It takes itself and thus causes various parts of the body to swell. As the amount of food intake increases, body weight is also increased due to swelling of the hands and feet.

As long as signs of pregnancy poisoning, such as high blood pressure, severe body and eye swelling in the urine, do not require a hard diet, but if one of these symptoms is detected, a low salt or salt free diet will be needed.

Keep in mind that a low-salt diet is not the same as reducing the amount of salt you add to your diet, but you should avoid eating salty foods such as sausages, smoked fish, salty meal, salty cucumbers and nuts. For your food to have a good taste, you can use some salt salts that are salty but do not have the salts of food you eat. With a low salt diet, body weight is reduced, and members' swelling is also eliminated. If these symptoms are not resolved, taking medicines that increase urine will release large amounts of salt from the body and lower body weight. To come


Fatty and fried foods, along with difficult digestion, cause excessive obesity. Therefore, when your body weight is larger than normal, your diet should be low in fat. Obesity related to the storage of fat in the body after delivery is difficult to quench and it sometimes takes a long time to reduce body weight.


In summer, the daily water intake increases due to the warmth of the air and sweating and so it does not harm excessive fluids, but when the weather is warm, 4 to 5 glasses of water per day are enough. You should not overestimate water and fluid in cases of swelling and / or sudden increase in body mass.

Juice, non-alcoholic beverages and dough are considered as good liquids. Consumption of tea and coffee is not harmful if it is not higher than usual.

Weight gain during pregnancy:

In the first trimester of pregnancy, body weight remains constant and sometimes even slightly reduced by 1, but from three months later, body weight gradually increases so that after six months, about 500 grams per week are added to the original weight. To be The total body weight increases by an average of 6 to 10 kilograms throughout the pregnancy. Therefore, if the body weight of 500 grams per week or a total of 10 kg throughout pregnancy exceeds a low salt diet, there should be no symptoms of pregnancy poisoning.

The numbers indicate the cause of weight gain during pregnancy

  1. Baby weight 3500 g
  2. Weight of pair 500 g
  3. The liquid inside the bag packs 600 grams
  4. Overweight is 900 gr
  5. Add 500 g blood volume
  6. Overweight breast 700 g

And the remainder is due to the accumulation of fat and a lot of water in the tissues of the body. Weight gain of up to 12 kilograms is almost normal, but it is also more harmful because it may lead to various complications such as back pain due to pressure on the spine, varice and leg pain due to pressure on the lower limb veins, resulting in the mother After delivery, the fat remains in the body due to the accumulation of fat in the body.

Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to these changes and to establish a proper diet plan during this period. Each pregnant woman should provide her food needs from all food groups. Here we briefly talk about each group.


Pregnant women provide almost the most need for this group. Of course, it is noteworthy that we need to differentiate between need and elimination. Each woman needs 300 kcal per day during pregnancy. If energy is not enough, the protein instead of its vital role in growth and development. Stored as a source of energy. The foods in this group have high levels of carbohydrates, which are the primary source of energy.


The legumes are a good source of protein that builds body tissues for the mother and the baby. During the last 6 months, about one kilogram of protein is stored by the mother. Of course, the major part of the protein is from animal sources such as meat and poultry. Many of the riches are rich in iron and vitamin B.

The need for iron during pregnancy is high, and since iron need in the first four months of pregnancy is low, iron supplementation is not necessary during this period, but after that, iron supplementation should be used in addition to dieting.

the vegetables:

Vegetables can provide a large amount of vitamins such as A and C, and minerals and fiber. One of the problems of pregnant women during pregnancy is constipation, which is a problem with the consumption of herbs. The need for vitamin C during pregnancy is seventy percent higher than that of non-pregnancy, which is a good regular diet that easily gives the mother this amount.

Cabbage, legumes, potatoes, spinach, green grains and tomatoes are rich in vitamin C and help to absorb iron in foods. Our body stores vitamins "C", and with the right nutrition, this vitamin can be easily prepared. Dark green and dark yellow vegetables such as carrots or lardak, potatoes, green peppers and broccoli are rich in vitamin A, which are essential for the growth and health of the mother and the baby.


Fruits like oranges, grapefruits, mandarins, lemons and grapes are a great source of vitamin C. Each pregnant woman can use this group several times a day and meet her needs for vitamins such as A and C. For example, take juice or fresh fruit with breakfast or between meals, fresh or dried fruit or fruit salad with lunch and fruit compote for dessert and dinner.


Protein, a maternal essential ingredient for its mother and her baby, is clearly in this group. The only vitamin that is present in this group is vitamin B 12. In mothers who are vegetarian, their vitamin B12 stores are low in their infants. It is also important to consume meat for the removal of anemia and supply of iron to the body. This group is among the main food groups for pregnant mothers to be included in their meals.

Milk and Yogurt:

Dairy products meet a high level of nutritional requirements, especially calcium and protein in this material. During pregnancy, about 30 grams of calcium accumulates in the mother, most of which are stored in the fetus at the end of pregnancy.

Calcium is the main ingredient in bone and tooth formation. If the intake of calcium is insufficient, the fetus uses calcium from the mother's bones, which causes the mother to have osteoporosis or osteoporosis in the future.

Any pregnant woman should try to take at least a glass of milk a day. If the mother is not satisfied with the taste of milk, it should be accepted by adding such ingredients as cacao and the like, or adding it in soup or cheese grate Or salad or any other way to eat it.

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Last modified on 14 October 2018
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